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AJNR 22: 481-92,2001 Keller E et al: Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in deep cerebral venous thrombosis. Neuroradiology 41:410-418, 1999 Provenzale JM et al: Std symptoms all sinus thrombosis: Findings on CT and MR imaging and diagnostic pitfalls. Note increased flow within petrosal sinuses (arrow).

Typical (Left) Axial OWl MR in a case with ICV thrombosis, extensive bithalamic edema (not shown) has only mild diffusion restriction (arrows). Most of abnormality was vasogenic edema std symptoms all to venous hypertension. Four ba ic type are r ognized: (1) Arteriovenous malformation; (2) V nou a cular malformations (al 0 known a "venou angioma" or developmental nou anomalie, DV ); (3) apillary telangiecta std symptoms all ; and (4) avernou malformation or "angiomas.

With th advent of endo a cular therapy, VM have recently been recla ified augmentin 1 g to th pre en e or ab ence of arteriov std symptoms all ( -V) shunting within the malformation. In thi ection std symptoms all discuss the following 7 p ifi va cular malformation: VM with -V hunting rteriovenous malformation Dural A-V fistula Vein of Galen malformation M without A-V shunting Developmental venou anomaly inus pericranii avernous malformation apillar telangiectasia ariant and hi tologi ally-mixed VMs, the most common of which i a ca ernou -v nou malformation, are discussed under their dominant omponent.

SECTION 5: Vascular Malformations CVMs With A-V Shunting Arteriovenous Malformation Dural A-V Fistula Vein of Galen Malformation 1-5-4 1-5-8 1-5-12 CVMs Without A-V Shunting Developmental Venous Anomaly Sinus Pericranii Cavernous Malformation Capillary Telangiectasia 1-5-16 1-5-20 1-5-24 1-5-28 ARTERIOVENOUS Coronal graphic shows a classic cerebral AVM.

Note nidus (curved arrow) with std symptoms all aneurysm (open arrow) and enlarged feeding arteries with a "pedicle" aneurysm (arrow). Note multifocal curvilinear foci of contrast enhancement representing an AVM nidus with enlarged arterial feeders and draining veins. Sato S et al: Perinidal dilated capillary network in cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

Neurosurg 54: 163-70, 2004 Mori H et al: Two-dimensional thick-slice MR digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of small to medium-size intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Neuroradiol45: 27-33, 2003 Suzuki M et al: Contrast-enhanced MRA for investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neuroradiol 45: 231-5,2003 Berg J et al: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a questionnaire based study to delineate the different phenotypes caused by endoglin and ALKI mutations.

Neurosurg 48: 973-83, 2001 Uranishi R et al: Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation in human cerebral vascular malformations. Normal saline 49: 671-80, 2001 Vikkula M et al: Molecular genetics of vascular malformations. IntervNeuroradiol 7:5-17, 2001 Hashimoto T et al: Abnormal balance in the angiopoietin-tie2 system in human brain arteriovenous malformations.

Note relative lack of mass effect, markedly enlarged draining veins (open arrow). There is no normal brain within the lesion. Typical (Left) Axial NECT shows a large temporal lobe hematoma in this patient with spontaneous ICH. Partially thrombosed AVM was documented at surgical evacuation of the hematoma.

Variant (Left) Lateral DSA of a selective ICA injection shows a parietal AVM with Multiple personality disorder feeders.

Examination of the vertebral and external carotid circulations is essential for Mometasone Furoate, Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate Inhalation (Dulera)- FDA delineation of blood supply. Mixed pial-dural supply in supratentorial AVMs is rare. Vascular Malformations 5 7 Lateral graphic shows chronically thrombosed transverse cabins with dAVF consisting of innumerable "crack-like" vessels in wall.

Rucker JC et std symptoms all Diffuse std symptoms all enhancement in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous statex. Kai Y et al: Pre- and post-treatment MR imaging and single photon emission CT in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas and retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage.

Burrows Std symptoms all et al: Venous variations of the brain and cranial vault. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. Klisch J et al: Transvenous treatment of bn f cavernous and dural arteriovenous fistulae: results for 31 patients and review of the literature.

Chung SJ et al: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: analysis of 60 patients. Coley SC et al: Dural arteriovenous fistulae: noninvasive diagnosis with dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography.

Nomura S et al: Subarachnoid std symptoms all caused by dural arteriovenous fistula of the sphenobasal sinus--case report. Biondi A et al: Intracranial extra-axial cavernous (HEM) angiomas: tumors or vascular malformations. Satomi J et al: Benign cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: outcome std symptoms all conservative management based on the natural history of the lesion. Note presence of innumerable "flow voids" within the enlarged sinus wall.

Variant (Left) Lateral OSA of an internal carotid angiogram shows a type IV dAVF with enlarged tentorial branches from the meningohypophyseal trunk std symptoms all and deep cortical venous drainage (open arrows).

The deep cortical venous drainage is well seen (open arrows). Tentorial dAVFs are especially dangerous lesions. Initial imaging diagnosis was infiltrating primary brain tumor (Courtesy P. Thrombosis of draining cortical veins caused std symptoms all edema, mass effect. Vascular Malformations 5 11 Sagittal graphic depicts a classic vein of Galen malformation (VGM). The dilated median prosencephalic vein of Markowski (MPV) drains via the embryonic falcine sinus.

The MPV (open arrow) drains via the falcine sinus (arrow). The straight sinus is absent (curved arrow) (Courtesy 5. Jones B et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: Diagnosis and treatment of 13 children with extended clinical follow-up.



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