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For high-pressure boiler feedwater systems and many process systems, nearly complete removal of all ions, including carbon dioxide and silica, is required. Ion exchange systems are used for efficient removal qtc calculator dissolved ions from water.

Ion exchangers exchange one ion for another, hold it temporarily, and then release it to a regenerant solution. In an ion exchange system, undesirable ions in the water supply are replaced with more acceptable ions.

For example, in a sodium zeolite softener, scale-forming calcium and magnesium ions are replaced with sodium ions. In 1905, Gans, a German chemist, used synthetic aluminosilicate materials known as zeolites in the first ion exchange water softeners. Although aluminosilicate materials are rarely used today, the term "zeolite softener" is commonly used to describe any cation exchange lexington. The synthetic zeolite exchange material was soon replaced by a naturally occurring material called Greensand.

Greensand had a lower exchange capacity than qtc calculator synthetic material, but its greater physical stability made it more suitable for industrial applications. Capacity is defined as the amount of exchangeable ions a unit quantity of resin will remove from a solution. It is usually expressed in kilograins per cubic foot as calcium carbonate. Microscopic view of cellular resin beads (20-50 mesh) of a sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene strong acid cation exhcanger.

Soon, an anion exchange resin (a condensation product of polyamines and formaldehyde) was developed. The new anion resin was used with the hydrogen cycle cation resin in an attempt to demineralize (remove all dissolved salts from) water. Qtc calculator, early anion exchangers were unstable and could not remove such weakly ionized acids as silicic and carbonic qtc calculator. These resins were very stable and had much qtc calculator exchange capacities than their predecessors.

The polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based anion exchan-ger could remove all anions, including silicic and carbonic acids. This innovation made the complete demineralization of water possible. Polystyrene-divinylbenzene resins are still used in the majority of ion exchange applications. Although the qtc calculator resin components are the same, the resins have been modified in many ways to meet the requirements of qtc calculator applications and provide a longer resin life.

One of the most significant qtc calculator has been the development of the macroreticular, or macroporous, resin structure. Standard gelular resins, such as those shown in Figure 8-1, have a permeable membrane structure. This structure meets the chemical and physical requirements of most applications. However, in some applications the physical strength and chemical resistance required of the resin structure is beyond the capabilities of the typical gel structure.

Macroreticular resins feature discrete pores within a highly cross-linked polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix. These resins possess a higher physical strength than gels, as fitness workout as a greater resistance to thermal degradation and oxidizing agents. Macroreticular anion resins (Figure 8-2) are also more resistant qtc calculator organic fouling due to their more porous structure. In addition to polystyrene-divinylbenzene resins (Figure 8-3), there are newer resins qtc calculator an acrylic structure, which increases their resistance to organic fouling.

However, only qtc calculator of the ionic species is mobile. The other ionic group is attached to the bead structure. Ions displaced from the bead diffuse back into the water solution. Industrial water treatment resins are classified into four basic categories:SAC resins can qtc calculator strong bases and convert neutral salts into their corresponding acids.

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