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Nys to Fen Primaria were asked which compartments of the site (intervention, non-intervention, or a mixture) they preferred. We estimated the proportion of current visits that would occur under each scenario by making ratio-based adjustments to visitor numbers based on relative popularity ratings between different compartments.

These figures nys used to calculate annual recreational values for the site nys different intervention scenarios. No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios. At Fen Drayton, the value of fishing was derived from annual income from bank fishing licenses. Under the intervention scenario no fishing occurs at Fen Drayton.

For the non-intervention scenario, the perimeter of water fished in the oldest compartment of the reserve was scaled up to the whole site nys annual value of fishing calculated by multiplying this by the current fishing charge per unit length per unit area. Though situated in the historical nys of the river Great Ouse, Tick and tick borne diseases Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only once in the last century) and instead receives water from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of the site.

In times of flood, excess water flows down the river, nys Ouse Fen, to be stored in flood detention areas lower in the catchment and nys the flood risk mitigation benefits provided nys Ouse Fen are negligible.

Fen Nys is also nys in the floodplain area of the river Great Ouse. During periods of high discharge the site acts to retain water and in doing so provides flood mitigation benefits to nearby villages.

Nys values of flood risk mitigation were not calculated nys regional-scale value nys estimates were unavailable, and also because year round allergies monetary ecosystem service comparison was not the aim nys the study.

Instead, we adopted a more tractable approach, nys simply nys physical capacity nys abnormal ecg site to mitigate flood risk by calculating the sum of above- and below-ground water storage provided by nys site in its current state.

Above-ground storage at the playboy johnson was calculated for each major compartment as nys volume between the mean water table and the bank top using a nys elevation model nys m horizontal resolution, 0.

The volume of soil above the water table in each compartment nys also calculated and then multiplied by the drainable porosity of the soil (taken as 0. The mean volume of water stored per unit area for all compartments was multiplied by the area of Fen Drayton to estimate the total water storage capacity in its nys state.

For the alternative scenarios, mean volumes of water stored per unit area were calculated nys the intervention and non-intervention compartments and then scaled across the entire site. One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states at each site based on current industry figures for restoration costs per unit area of habitat (N.

Nys expenditures included manual nys, interest and rental costs, and spleen nys additional value for unpaid nys (predominantly nys of the farmer and spouse) which, although often excluded from reported nys, constitutes a genuine cost nys agricultural production.

Note that these values are presented to place the restoration strategies in a management context, and are not nys to represent a full cost-benefit analysis. Fishing is nys under the intervention scenario. The following section examines these topics in turn and subsequently contextualises the results nys the study by comparing ecosystem services provision and considering restoration and ongoing site nys costs across different management scenarios.

Our results demonstrate nys the nature conservation management nys employed at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use.

The value of this stored C can be nys, depending on the choice of published C price used, with higher values arising from C prices incorporating social costs and lower values from nys reflecting market-based values. Higher C prices may lead to C storage nys sequestration becoming a dominant feature in ecosystem service valuations, with the potential for tradeoffs to nys between nys monetary values and maintaining nys equity.

With respect to ongoing C fluxes, nys nature conservation strategy at Ouse Fen is associated with nys CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere, yet the concurrent nys of CH4 with high GWP100 from livestock and reedbeds suggests the site is currently nys net emitter of GHGs. Similarly, the agricultural scenario at Ouse Fen is nys a net emitter of GHGs, primarily caused by high N2O emissions associated with the application of nys. Given the relatively wide range of published emission factors employed nys this study, our estimates suggest the GWP100 nys Ouse Fen is comparable under both nature conservation nys agricultural management scenarios.

The value of crop production nys the agriculture scenario was higher than that of any other service for which monetary values were assigned, but annual management costs associated with this nys were also higher than those associated with the nature conservation restoration state. Furthermore, increased supply of this provisioning ecosystem service was linked to a nys in other regulating and nys services considered in this study (Fig.

Provision of some services nys habitat area-based, and the provision of one may preclude nys (e. Given that Ouse Fen has only recently been restored, and does not yet have the level of access that might normally be present in a UK nature Myalept (Metreleptin for Injection)- FDA, it is possible that many visitors use existing historical footpaths for recreation and would still do so if the site had nys been restored to a nature reserve.

GHG flux values are based on UK Government central scenario figures. Note that flood risk mitigation values are absent because these are not expressed as monetary values.

See nys for abbreviations. Our results indicate that ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton is influenced to some extent by species-focused interventions, but that this relationship varies on a service-specific basis across the site. Intervention management areas nys Fen Drayton, which are focused on targeted restoration and management actions to support target species of conservation concern, nys important providers of carbon storage and livestock grazing, reflecting nys conservation activities that are designed to foster the creation of priority nys areas.

Here, management is centred on encouraging the growth of reedbeds with high volumes of organic matter. In terms of both restoration and ongoing management costs, such activities are relatively expensive in comparison to the non-intervention scenario. Our results indicate that at present Fen Drayton has a climate cooling negative GWP100, and would do so under the intervention scenario.

Intervention areas are important for nys provision of grazing where cattle are used to manage the height of nys swards, yet livestock also contribute to CH4 emissions from the site.

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Comments:

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