Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA

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Other examples are shown in your textbook. A scalenohedron is a closed form with 8 or 12 faces. In ideally developed faces each of the faces is a scalene triangle.

In the model, note the presence of the Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA rotoinversion axis perpendicular to the 3 2-fold axes. A rhombohedron is 6-faced closed form wherein 3 faces on top are offset by 3 identical upside down faces on the bottom, as a result of a 3-fold rotoinversion axis.

Ao bayer can also result from a 3-fold axis with perpendicular 2-fold axes. A disphenoid is Qudexy XR (Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules)- FDA closed form consisting johnson arthur 4 faces.

These are only present in the orthorhombic system (class 222) and the tetragonal system (class )The rest of the forms all occur in the isometric system, and thus have either four 3-fold axes or four axes. Only some of the more common isometric forms will be discussed here. A hexahedron is the same as a cube. An octahedron Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA an 8 faced form that results form three 4-fold axes with perpendicular mirror planes.

Note that four 3-fold axes are present that are perpendicular to the triangular faces of the octahedron (these 3-fold axes are not shown in the drawing). A dodecahedron is a closed 12-faced form. Dodecahedrons can be formed by cutting off the edges of a cube. As an exercise, you figure out the Miller Indices for these 12 faces. This means that all faces intersect two of the a axes at equal length and intersect the third a axis at a different length.

It is a four faced form that results form three axes and four 3-fold axes (not shown in the drawing). Note Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA there are no 4-fold axes in this class. Again there are no 4-fold axes.

Tetartoid Tetartoids are general forms in the tetartoidal class (23) which only has 3-fold axes and 2-fold axes with no mirror planes. Understanding Miller Indices, Form Symbols, and Forms In class we will fill in the following table in order to help you better understand the relationship between form and crystal faces.

The assignment will be to determine for each form listed across the top of the table the number of faces in that form, the name of the form, and the number of cleavage directions that the form symbol would imply for each of the crystal classes listed in the left-hand column.

Before we can do this, however, we need to review how we define the crystallographic axes in relation to the elements of symmetry in each of the crystal systems.

Triclinic - Since this class has such low symmetry there Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA no constraints on the axes, but the most pronounced face should be taken as parallel to the c axis. Monoclinic - The 2 fold axis is the b axis, or if only a mirror plane is present, the b axis is perpendicular to the mirror plane.

Orthorhombic - The current convention is to take the longest axis as b, the intermediate axis is a, and the shortest axis is c. An older convention was to take the c axis as the longest, the b axis intermediate, and the a axis as the shortest. Tetragonal - The Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA axis is dhea the 4 fold rotation axis or the rotoinversion axis.

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA - The c axis is the 6-fold, 3-fold, axis, or. Isometric - The equal length a axes are either the 3 4-fold rotation axes, rotoinversion axes, or, in cases where no 4 or axes are present, the 3 2-fold axes.

Since the edges will all be parallel to a line, we Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA define that the direction of the line using a notation similar to Miller Indices. This notation is called the zone symbol. The zone symbol looks like a Miller Index, but is enclosed in square brackets, i. For a group of faces in the same zone, we can determine the zone symbol for all non-hexagonal minerals by choosing 2 non-parallel faces (hkl) and (pqr).

To do so, we write the Miller Index for each face Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA, one face directly beneath the other, as shown below.

The first and last numbers in each line are discarded. Then we apply the following formula to determine the indices in the zone symbol. The zone symbol for these faces (and any other faces that lie in the same zone) is determined by writing 110 twice and then immediately below, writing 010 twice. Zone symbols, therefore are often used to denote directions through crystals. Being able to specify directions in crystals is important because many properties of minerals depend on direction.

These are called vectorial properties. Vectorial Properties of CrystalsAlthough a crystal structure is an ordered arrangement of atoms on a Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA, as we have seen, the order may be different along different directions in the crystal.

Thus, some properties of crystals depend on direction. These are called vectorial properties, and can be divided into two categories: continuous and discontinuous. Continuous vectorial properties depend on direction, but along any given the direction the property is the same. Some of the continuous vectorial properties are:Discontinuous vectorial Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid)- FDA pertain only to certain directions or planes within a crystal.



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