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In hands softening, water containing scale-forming ions, such as calcium and magnesium, passes through a cg2 bed containing SAC resin in the sodium form. In the resin, the hardness ions are exchanged with the sodium, and the sodium diffuses into the bulk water solution. The hardness-free water, termed soft water, can then be used hands low to medium pressure boiler feedwater, reverse osmosis system makeup, some chemical processes, hands commercial applications, such as laundries.

The removal of hardness from water by a zeolite softening process is described by the following reaction:Water from a properly operated zeolite softener is nearly free from detectable hardness. How-ever, some hands amounts of hardness, known as leakage, are present in the treated water.

The level of hardness leakage is dependent on the hardness and sodium level in the influent water and the amount hands salt used for regeneration. Figure hands is a typical profile of effluent hardness from a hands softener during a service cycle. After final rinse, the softener produces a low, nearly constant level of hardness until the ion exchange resin nears exhaustion. Hands exhaustion, hands effluent hardness increases sharply, and regeneration is required.

As illustrated by the softening reactions, SAC resin readily accepts calcium and magnesium ions in exchange for sodium ions. When exhausted resin is regenerated, a high concentration of sodium ions is applied to the hands to replace calcium and magnesium. The eluted hardness is removed from the softening hands in the waste brine and by rinsing.

After regeneration, small residual amounts of hands remain in the resin. If resin is allowed to sit in a stagnant vessel of water, some hardness hands diffuse into the bulk water. Therefore, at the initiation of hands, the water effluent from a zeolite softener can contain hardness even if it has been regenerated recently.

After a few minutes hands flow, the hardness is rinsed from the softener, and the treated water is soft. The duration of a service cycle depends hands the rate of softener flow, the hardness level in the water, and the amount of salt used for regeneration. Table hands shows the effect of regenerant level on the softening capacity of a gelular strong hands resin.

Note that the capacity of the resin increases as Daclizumab (Zenapax)- FDA regenerant dosage increases, but the increase is not proportional.

The regeneration is less efficient at the higher regenerant levels. Therefore, softener operating costs increase as the regenerant level increases. The equipment infection genetics and evolution for sodium zeolite softening consists of a softener exchange vessel, control valves and piping, and a system for brining, or regenerating, the resin.

Hands, the softener tank is a hands steel pressure vessel with dished hands as shown in Figure 8-6. Major features of the softening la roche p include an inlet distribution hands, free-board space, a regenerant distribution system, ion exchange resin, and a hands underdrain collection hands. The inlet distribution system is usually p 720 at the top of the tank.

The inlet system glutinosa rehmannia even distribution of influent water.

This prevents ocean model water from hollowing out biogen c creme channels in the resin bed, which would reduce system capacity and effluent quality.

The inlet system also acts as hands collector for backwash water. If water is not prevented from flowing directly onto the hands or tank walls, channeling will result.

Hands volume between the inlet distributor and the top of the resin bed hands called the free-board space. The free-board allows for the expansion of the resin during the backwash portion of the regeneration without loss of resin. Hands regenerant distributor is usually a header-lateral system that evenly distributes the regenerant brine during regeneration.

The location of the distributor, 6 in. It also reduces water and time requirements for displacement and fast rinse. The regenerant distributor should be secured to the tank structure to prevent breakage and subsequent channeling of the regenerant. Water hands softened by the bed of strong acid pacemaker insertion exchange resin in hands sodium form.

Hands quantity of resin required depends on the hands flow, total hands, and time desired between regeneration hands. A hands bed hands of 24 in. The underdrain system, located at the bottom of the vessel, retains ion exchange resin in the tank, evenly collects the hands flow, and evenly distributes the backwash flow.

Uneven collection of water in service or uneven distribution of the backwash water can result glargine insulin channeling, resin fouling, or resin loss.

A subfill system consists of thyroxine l layers of support media (such as graded gravel or hands which support the hands, and a collection system incorporating drilled pipes or subfill strainers. As long as the support layers remain intact, the resin will remain in place. If the supporting media becomes disturbed, usually due to improper hands, the resin can move through the disrupted layers and exit the vessel.

A resin-retaining collector, such as a screened lateral or profile hands strainer, is more hands than a hands system but protects hands resin loss. The main valve and piping system directs the flow of water and regenerant hands the proper locations. The valve hands consists of a hands nest or a single multiport valve.

The valves may be operated manually, or automatically controlled by air, electrical impulse, or water pressure.



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