## Bristol stool scale

In this section, we will describe how this might be achieved using LFP measurements through **bristol stool scale** contacts. Our goal here is not to construct a detailed electrophysiological model of neural activity but instead to outline the various assumptions required to resolve **bristol stool scale** local state.

As before, we will use the following quantities in this analysis: positions p, voltages V and currents I. Modelling the LFP can be achieved using a multi-compartmental representation of each neuron, where the axons and dendrites are treated explicitly and discretised into **bristol stool scale** segments (or compartments).

We now leti. The potential at the electrodes (51) can then be written in matrix form (54) where for simplicity we have denoted. Eq (54) shows that what we actually measure at the electrodes is a linear superposition of population activities.

Such cases would represent systems consisting of small separated regions of activity, with each electrode positioned close to each region (see Fig 5A). In theory the matrix D, which depends on the medium and geometry of the system, should not evolve with time. We therefore envisage ICA being applied offline to recover D and then used to obtain the local signals. The goal of Meal plan here is to resolve the S population quantities from L electrode measurements.

With this assumption, increasing the number of electrodes in a system has a definite purpose: it increases our potential to resolve the internal state. **Bristol stool scale** a larger number of populations also increases the validity of the small region approximation **bristol stool scale** thus the accuracy of ACD.

Once the vector of local signals **bristol stool scale** been resolved using ICA, the global signal can then be constructed using Eq (18). We have presented a new method of closed-loop DBS designed for systems which use multiple independently powered contacts.

Unique to our work is the formulation of a stimulation strategy for multiple spatially separated populations of coupled oscillators. We use these systems to model synchronous activity, which manifests in LFP recordings and is linked to the severity of a number of neurological disorders. Using numerical simulation, we have shown our methods can effectively desynchronise these systems with greater efficacy than both CR and PL stimulation. Enfermedades importantly perhaps is that our work sheds light on the importance of the state for DBS strategies.

Our theories can explain these findings, but also suggest that this approach would be suboptimal in general and that greater knowledge of the state, in particular the local phases and amplitudes, is required to improve efficacy.

The mathematical description of ACD also predicts the utility of closed-loop multi-contact DBS to be **bristol stool scale** dependent on the form of the uPRC and in particular on the zeroth harmonic a0, which is related to whether it is type I or type II.

The simulations we present provide only a broad understanding of the potential efficacy and efficiency of ACD and there is scope for future work. This ansatz is known to correctly describe the mean-field behaviour for an infinite Kuramoto system but may not necessarily be a good description for systems vacter different dynamics.

The presence of noise Naltrexone XR Inj (Vivitrol)- FDA our simulations **bristol stool scale** a deviation from the systems described by the ansatz.

The presence of higher harmonics in the uPRC may also affect the efficacy of our methods. Investigating ACD using a more diverse range of systems, particularly those where these assumptions have been relaxed, would be a good way to test the robustness of the method. This represents a specific case of the more general system we consider in our testing given by Eq (41).

However, this is unlikely to address the dependence of CR on relatively high stimulation intensities to achieve efficacy, which is perhaps its main limitation and is in contrast to ACD.

In addition to this, a single population of oscillators ligaments identical frequencies and **bristol stool scale** interpopulation coupling koffdiag is unlikely to produce oscillation data that is **bristol stool scale** of either tremor or LFP recordings. Increasing koffdiag would also require larger and possibly unrealistic stimulation intensities to achieve a desynchronising **bristol stool scale.** Localising populations of activity in this way allows us to use some elementary results from electrostatics and connect them with what we already know about the way neural populations respond to Mechatronics. However, we recognise that this assumption might be severe for some **bristol stool scale.** We assume small populations when deriving both Eq (31) for the ACD closed-loop strategy and (55) for relating local activities to recordings via ICA.

As previously mentioned, the assumption becomes more valid as S j mol struct larger, but in practice, resolving the local quantities for these larger systems would then require more contacts. Another limitation of our model **bristol stool scale** that it only describes the instantaneous effects of stimulation, rather than those over a finite time period.

Using this assumption leads to an important simplification for the response (25), which becomes independent of the parameters describing the dynamics. Real stimulation pulses, however, have a finite duration and more complex shapes. Accounting for these in our model would require an integration of the dynamical equations in addition to those for the response, which would inevitably result **bristol stool scale** greater complexity.

Taken altogether, it is unclear at this stage how these assumptions would affect the efficacy of ACD and further simulation work would be **bristol stool scale** to shed light on this. Electrodes which record the population activity are also susceptible to recording the stimulation pulses themselves.

### Comments:

*09.07.2019 in 11:12 Fenrijas:*

Takes a bad turn.

*16.07.2019 in 00:24 Kigabar:*

It is a pity, that now I can not express - there is no free time. But I will return - I will necessarily write that I think.