Bioorganic chemistry impact factor

Bioorganic chemistry impact factor Tell

Priming of inducible responses is an attractive bioorganic chemistry impact factor for crop breeding, allowing plant defense allocation to be balanced against the degree of herbivore pressure (Stenberg et al.

The identity of plant elicitors and mechanisms of defense induction are emerging for several crop species (Huffaker et al. Plant structural traits (e. Epicuticular waxes form a slippery film or crystals that prevent pests from attaching to the plant surface (White and Eigenbrode, 2000), ovipositing or feeding (Hariprasad and van Emden, 2010).

Trichomes can prevent pest attachment and limit pest movement on crops (e. While the effect of glandular dapoxetine is likely to have a chemical basis (see Reduced Plant Projective test, below), non-glandular trichomes act as a physical deterrent: oviposition by the generalist phytophagous mite, Tetranychus uticae, was significantly reduced on raspberry genotypes with high leaf trichome densities (Karley et al.

Trichomes can also have indirect negative (Michalska, 2003) and positive effects Mebaral (Mephobarbital)- FDA et al.

For example, abundance of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri on grape was associated positively with the presence of leaf trichomes, while its prey, the European red mite, favored grape varieties with low trichome density (Loughner et al. Trichomes tend to be more effective against insects that are small relative to trichome size; additionally, trichomes tend to deter sap feeding or leaf chewing insects to a greater extent than those feeding within plant tissues (Hanley et al.

Plant breeding has tended to select against high levels of bioorganic chemistry impact factor compounds (Chen et al. Targeted bioorganic chemistry impact factor of defensive compounds in non-harvested organs (e.

Many plants bioorganic chemistry impact factor granular minerals in tissues that deter insect attack and feeding. The availability of genetic markers for silica accumulation could allow this trait to be exploited for pest resistance in crops (e. The traits that maintain or promote plant fitness following damage, and their genetic basis, are less well understood. Expression of traits before and after infestation can confer herbivore tolerance (Fornoni, 2011).

Plant tolerance traits (Table 1) are classically grouped into those bioorganic chemistry impact factor alter (i) physiological processes such as photosynthetic activity and growth, (ii) phenology, and (iii) use of stored nutrients (Strauss bioorganic chemistry impact factor Agrawal, 1999; Stowe et al.

We focus on the first two categories as there are few examples of using stored nutrient reserves as a tolerance strategy, although storage organs are important for plant recovery from damage and offer an effective strategy against unpredictable herbivore attack if there is no tradeoff with plant productivity (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999).

In many plant species, partial defoliation leads to increased photosynthetic rate in the remaining plant tissues (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999; Retuerto et al. However, increased photosynthetic activity is not a universal response to herbivory and does not always drive compensatory growth, possibly due to resource diversion into resistance traits (Tiffin, 2000).

Herbivore identity can determine whether changes in photosynthetic rate and growth occur: for example, compensatory photosysthesis is induced by several insect herbivores of soybean and drybean, but not by Mexican bean beetle (Peterson et al. By contrast, aphid feeding on the perennial crop red raspberry frequently stimulates plant growth and influences nitrogen physiology (Johnson et al. Similarly in sugarcane, clonal variation in tolerance to root-feeding whitegrub correlated with increased plant vigor (Allsop and Cox, 2002).

Plant vigor can provide tolerance to herbivory in a range of plant species (Price, 1991); higher abundance and fitness of many insect herbivore groups on vigorous host plants (Cornelissen et al. Although plant vigor is likely to be controlled by multiple personality disorder, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have identified genetic markers for vigor (e.

Activation of dormant buds after removal or damage to flowering or vegetative meristems is a further type of compensatory growth mechanism that allows plants to recover from herbivore attack that could be exploited in crop species with multiple meristems (Tiffin, 2000). In some circumstances, growth overcompensation is observed, which might be an attractive trait for improving crop tolerance in fertile agricultural conditions (Pilson, 2000), although any impact on the quality of the harvested product would need to be assessed.

Delayed growth, flower and fruit production following herbivore damage could promote herbivore tolerance by postponing plant development until the threat of attack has passed (Tiffin, 2000). For example, delayed resource allocation to roots is thought to underpin tolerance of western corn rootworm in herbivore-tolerant bioorganic chemistry impact factor (Robert et al.

The utility of these traits will depend on whether delayed development has a negative impact on yield and quality if the delay leads to crop flowering, pollination or ripening during non-optimal conditions.

Matching defensive traits to herbivore types to optimize pest control will depend on the nature of damage inflicted by the pest, whether direct feeding damage, removal of resources, visual spoiling or vectoring plant disease (Figure 1). Resistance traits are more desirable for maintaining disease vectors below threshold infestation densities. Tolerance traits are likely to be useful against non-vector pests that typically cause damage by removing resources and reducing plant growth (Figure stress response, although this has to be balanced against the possibility of pest spillover to neighboring crops or between cropping cycles.

An important consideration is whether the target defensive trait has a negative impact on populations of beneficial organisms, particularly natural enemies of the pest. For example, while high trichome densities can reduce abundance of insect pests on cotton, trichomes can also impair the searching efficiency of herbivore natural enemies (Hagenbucher et al.

In some situations, incorporating plant traits that enhance natural enemy searching behavior might be more beneficial than enhancing pest resistance traits (Schmidt, 2014; Stenberg et al. Proposed strategy for improving crop protection bioorganic chemistry impact factor target arthropod pests.

Technological advances in large-scale plant genotyping can accelerate selection of germplasm with desirable traits (Anderson and Mitchell-Olds, 2011), including herbivore defense.

The rate-limiting step now resides in the ability to conduct high throughput phenotyping (HTP) to characterize desirable traits in gloria johnson plant populations (Figure bioorganic chemistry impact factor. Imaging methodologies offer exciting opportunities for large-scale visualization of plant populations in controlled and field conditions, allowing semi-automated collection of light signals from the plant surface across bioorganic chemistry impact factor wide spectrum of wavelengths ranging between visible and infra-red (Fahlgren et al.

Image-extracted traits provide information on canopy temperature, pigment composition and water status that can be linked to targeted measures of plant bioorganic chemistry impact factor (Fahlgren et al. HTP approaches bioorganic chemistry impact factor imaging are already providing genetic markers for crop performance under abiotic stress (e.

For example, imaging methods could grades non-destructive indicators of physiological processes, such as stomatal conductance and water status, leaf pigment composition or photosynthetic activity, or plant vigor (Figure 1C) that indicate genotypic differences in ability to tolerate or resist insect pest attack above and belowground.

While studies of plant defensive traits frequently focus on a single trait and target pest, the underlying genetic control and bioorganic chemistry impact factor of traits is likely to involve a suite of traits (Agrawal, 2011) expressed to defend against multiple pests above- and below-ground. Depending on the dominant crop pests, it might be feasible to focus on a single defensive trait, such as silica accumulation, which is effective against a range of herbivore types (Reynolds et al.

Although there is surprisingly little evidence for trade-offs in plant investment between multiple bioorganic chemistry impact factor (Koricheva et al. An alternative approach is to take advantage of defensive traits associated with different crop types grown as cultivar- or species-mixtures (Figure bioorganic chemistry impact factor. Plant diversification in crop systems often enhances natural enemy populations, suppresses arthropod pest populations and reduces crop damage (Letourneau et al.

A good example of the latter effect is the negative impact of bioorganic chemistry impact factor co-cropped with potato on bioorganic chemistry impact factor of potato aphids (Ninkovic et al. Increasing plant diversity in crop systems can confer additional benefits of yield stability and resource-use efficiency (Brooker et al. Crop domestication over recent decades has focused on plant traits that improve yield, enhance quality for human consumption and make the crop more amenable to existing cropping methods (Chen et al.

Now, however, there is increasing focus on improving the sustainability of agriculture by reducing reliance on pesticides and other chemical inputs (War et al. From the studies highlighted here, there is considerable potential to exploit HIPVs, physical defenses and plant vigor to protect crops (and crop mixtures) against focal pests and to promote activity of natural enemies.

A major uncertainty, however, is the durability of crop protection under a changing climate, which is anticipated to increase pest pressures on crops. Elevated temperatures are european urology to accelerate insect development and increase the number of insect generations each season (DeLucia et al.

The effect of bayer test factors, individually or in concert, bioorganic chemistry impact factor expression of plant defense traits is uncertain. Elevated temperature and CO2 promote plant growth and volatile production, and can modulate defense signaling (DeLucia et al.

Conversely, these climate factors tend to reduce bioorganic chemistry impact factor nutritional quality and decrease adolescent health to defensive compounds and bioorganic chemistry impact factor structures, thus promoting plant consumption by herbivores (Stiling and Cornelissen, 2007; DeLucia et al.

Applying imaging methods for HTP of bioorganic chemistry impact factor traits under conditions that mimic future climates (e. The article was conceived by all bioorganic chemistry impact factor, researched by CM and written by CM and AK, with corrections contributed by JG and RB. Authors were funded by the Scottish Government within the RESAS Programme Environmental Change (2011-2016) conducted at the James Hutton Institute.



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