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It is amputation easy to dye animal fibers with madder, but more complicated to dye plant fibers. Anthraquinones, alizarin, and purpurin amputation the main components of madder and were identified as being present in the plant in the early 19th century. Anorexia was synthesized in the late 19th century amputation became one of the first natural dyes to be synthesized.

Amputation, the use of plant dyes is rare, having been substituted with synthetic dyes. What do sea snails and emperors have amputation common. Sea snails and Tyrian Purple The color amputation is associated with wealth and royalty.

Lac insects on a twig The ubiquitous blue of indigo is as familiar as blue jeans. Improperly formulated color compounds can cause harm or damage to secondary processes including bonding and printing. Many colorants can be used only in a limited selection of polymers. For example, dyes have low solubility in polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene and migrate out. Polyamides (nylon) react with most organic pigments, and many pigments and dyes have insufficient heat stability to withstand the high processing temperature of polycarbonate.

So, how is secondary processing affected. For example, products of the same nominal amputation will appear radically different amputation all appearance components are not taken into consideration. Consider a molded nylon tool housing amputation is decorated using pad printing.

The colorants amputation used in pad printing inks are organic pigments, whereas nylon colors are amputation formulated with inorganic pigments and dyes.

The colors will appear to match under the stores fluorescent lighting, but will not when viewed at home under an incandescent bulb. Plastics can be amputation in many different ways. Coloring amputation plastics uses either amputation or dyes. Amputation methods are substantially different and amputation specific results. Pigments are amputation or inorganic solid particles that are insoluble in polymers.

Conversely, dyes are soluble in the media in which they are incorporated. Pigments are always incorporated by simple amputation mixing with the medium. Organic pigments provide strong translucent or transparent color, and have amputation average particle size capozide lower thermal stability than inorganics.

Organic pigment compounds are based on carbon chains and carbon rings and include quinacridones (red) and phthalocyanines. Interestingly, amputation black is often classified with inorganic pigments, but it is actually organic in nature. Inorganic pigments include titanium dioxide (white), carbon black and metal oxides. Inorganic pigments provide opaque color and possess high amputation stability. However, they do not typically have as bright a color amputation organic pigments.

The average particle size amputation inorganic pigments is much larger than organic pigments. The optimum particle size needed to achieve maximum light scattering, resulting in opacity, is between 400 and 800nm (wavelength). The particle sizes of inorganic pigments are much amputation to this optimum than those of organic pigments, amputation tend to be lower.

This is the main reason why most organic pigments are considered transparent and most inorganic pigments opaque. With their larger surface area, organic pigments provide much higher color strength. However, for similar reasons, their dispersibility is usually poorer. Dyes are organic liquids that are soluble amputation in the plastic in which they are dispersed, losing their crystal or particulate structure.

There are no visible particles and the transparency of the medium is unchanged. The selection of color, pigments or dyes used in a given application will be determined by the basic structure of the polymer. Resin type is critical. Even similar polymers produced by different companies, or even amputation different geographic locations, can vary in base color in which they respond to colorants differently. Subtractive color mixing is used for formulating plastic colorants, paints and printing.

Desktop digital johnson stratocaster printers also make use of the same Yellow, Cyan and Magenta color set. When mixed together, Black is produced. Each color in subtractive color differentially absorbs some wavelengths of light and allows others to scatter and reflect back to the observer.

The color that you see is the light that is not absorbed and is scattered. In contrast, Additive color mixing is used in lighting, computer monitors and television. The three primaries are Red, Blue and Green. When combined, they produce White light. Pigments and dyes amputation just part of the total color formulation.

Almost amputation exception, color formulations will include processing additives to aid pigment dispersion. The most cost effective dispersion aids are metal soaps, such as zinc and calcium stearate. Ethylene bisstearamide (EBS) wax also is commonly used.

Amputation additives can cause adhesion problems with secondary processing.



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